JOPTRNAL OF CHEMICAt EDUCATION
410 the prefstory remarks the analytical procedure is an abridged version of "Systematic Qualitative Organic Analysis" by the same author. As is the case with many English texts a certain amount of "translation" is neceasazy. Thus one 6nds such expressions as 'fume cupboard, potosh, boiling tubes, duster. Similarly, a sand bath is often used in experiments in which a water bath might be more satisfactory. The text contains no theoretical treatment of the simpler techniques such as distillation and extraction and there are no problems or exercises. The text should prove highly satisfactory in certain types of beginning course in organic chemistry. LIONEL JOSEPH SAWDmoo STATECOLLE(~B SAXDmoo. C*~~.lrosxr*
ADVANCES IN CAFSOHYDRATE CHEMISTRY. VOLUME IV Edited by W. W. Pigman, University of Alabama. Birmingham, Alabama, M. L. Wolfrom, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, and Stanley Peat, Associate Editor for the British Isles, University College of North Wales, Bangor, Caemarvonshire, Wales. Academic Press Inc., Publishers, New York, 1949. ix 378 pp. 9 figs. 51 tables. 16 X 24 cm. $7.80.
Tms volume is a convincing proof of the usefulness of specidieed chemical standard works, not only for the specialists who must read them but also for advanced students and workers in other fields of chemistry to whom their perusal will bring an amazing wealth of new knowledge and a most desirable enlargement of their seieutific horizon. Chemists not familiar with the intricacies of modern carbohydrate chemistry will learn for instance in the first oontrihuted paper, "The structure and configuration of sucrose," by Irving Levi and C. B. Purves, that in spite of comprehensive and reasonably adequate circumstantial evidence for the correctness of Haworth's structural formula a direct chemical proof for the configuration of cane sugar by an unambiguous chemical and not only enzymatic synthesis is still lacking. They will certainly be interested to learn from the second paper, "Blood group polysaccharides," by H. D. Gray and M. Stacey, that the extraordinary specificity of hlood-gronp substances lies no less in their carbohydrate residues then in their protein components. Chemists will he startled by the not generally known f a t that there exist branched chain monoses in the carbohydrate components of the parsley glycosides, as is shown by C. S. Hudson in the paper on "Apiose and glycosides of the parsley plant!' And they will read with interest in the fourth paper, "Biochemical reductions a t the expense of sugars," by Carl Neuberg, that such common and abundant substances as cane sugar and yeast can be used to perfom a great many "phytoehemieal reductions" which.by ordinary means cannot he carried out as easily or as effectively, a fact which ought to be studied also from a technical viewpoint. I t also will interest the organic chemist that, as the 6fth paper, "The acetylated nitriles of aldonic acids and their degradation," by V. Deulofen, demonstrates, the famous oyanohydrin synthesis of monoses by Kiliani-Fischer is being reversed to reveal many features in the 6ne structure of monosaccharides. The sixth paper, "Wood ssecharification," by E. E. Harris, is an illuminating survey ol fifty yeamof as yet uusuccessful endeavors to convert wood waste into sugar in an economic manner. In the seventh paper, "The use of boric acid for the determination of the configuration of carbohydrates," by J. Bdeseken, the fascinating behavior of boric acid toward polyhydroxy compounds in general and carhohydrates in particular is very ably explained snd it is shown how the enhanaement of the electrical cnnductivitv of boric acid can ~heused lor rlwclucidnrionof iotricaeiesolcarbohydolrcrunfi~rrsi tions. Theeighth pnpcr, "Tlw 1~exirols.snd a m c of t h i r derivatives," by R. Iahmnr, is the lint uomprchcnsive review of s vnvt field of organic snbstances of widespread natural occurrence and increasing industrial importsnce. The same is true for the ninth ~~
paper, "Plant gums and mucilages," by J. K. N. Jones, which describes the extremely complexeomposition of these important materials of the plant kingdom in their relationship to more familiar compounds of the carbohydrate gmup. The tenth paper, "Utilieation of sucrose,'' by L. F. Wiggins, is of greatest practical significence. I t shows that sucrose is not only an essential energy food hut also, what so few organic chemists realize, a chemical raw materid snd starting product unsurpassed by any other organic substance as far as availability, purity, inexpensiveness, and versatility are concerned. In fact, the editors of this splendidly written volume are to be commended for the emphasis they have put on sucrose which is not only "sugar" of the people but also the hub and the starting point of the large field of carbohydrate chemistry. The only improvement that should be suggested for further editions is greater oonsistency in terminology, whioh in several instances is confusing and thus misleading to those not very familiar with the subject . matter. FRANCIS JOSEPH WE199 W~snrxa~on D.. C.
ORGANIC SYNTHESES. VOLUME 29
C. S. Hamilton, Editor-in-Chief. b h n Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1949. v i 119 pp. 15.5 X 23.5 om. $2.50.
T n ~ is s the 29th annud volume of the series of recommended methods for the preparation of selected organic compounds. This volume, like previous ones! gives the equations for the reactions, procedures for product~onwith accompanying notes, and other methods of preparation for 36 different organic compounds. The directions have been contributed by 49 different collaborators in addition to members of the Editorial Board. The suggested directions have been further checked or verified by comuetent referees. Preoarations are listed under common ~ b ~ l r ( V 1 .indexing 1 names. The cumulativi names and Ch~~uicul suhject index comprises all material included in Volu~nra20 to 29, inclusive, of this series. Methods for the preparation of the following compounds ant included: l-acetylcyclohexene, acrylic acid (two methods), maminohenzaldehyde dimethylacetal, 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4 phthalazinedione, 8-henzoylacrylic acid, a-hromoheptaldehyde, terGbutylamine, tert-bntylamine hydrochloride, catalyst Raney nickel. 4chlorabutvl beneoate. 2-chloramethvlthio~hene. v-
hydroxyethylmercspto)prapionitrile, indazole, isoprene cyclic snlfone, metbacrylamide, m-methoxybenzaldehyde, 1-methyl-2aminoa&hraquin6ne, l-~ethylamin~4hramoanthr~quinane, methyl-4hydroxyquinoline, m-nitrobensaldehyde dimethylacetal, 'a-nitrohenaonitrile. 5-nitra-2.3-dihvdro-1.4-~hthzlaainedion. olcyl slr.ohol, n-phmylrinnnm~~nitrile, prr,towtrhic wiJ, 2thiophm~.;tI~l~~hy