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Downloaded by 46.161.58.221 on January 21, 2017 | http://pubs.acs.org Publication Date: May 5, 1989 | doi: 10.1021/ba-1990-0225.fw001

Archaeological Wood

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

Downloaded by 46.161.58.221 on January 21, 2017 | http://pubs.acs.org Publication Date: May 5, 1989 | doi: 10.1021/ba-1990-0225.fw001

ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY SERIES 225

Archaeological Wood

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Properties, Chemistry, and Preservation Roger M. Rowell, EDITOR U.S. Department of Agriculture

R. James Barbour, EDITOR Forintek Canada Corporation

Developed from a symposium sponsored by the Cellulose, Paper, and Textile Division at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Los Angeles, California, September 25-September 30, 1988

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC 1990

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Archaeological wood: properties, chemistry, and preservation Roger M. Rowell, editor, R. James Barbour, editor. p. cm.—(Advances in chemistry series, ISSN 0065-2393; 225) "Developed from a symposium sponsored by the Cellulose, Paper, and Textile Division at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Los Angeles, California, September 25-September 30, 1988."

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Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-8412-1623-1 1. Wood—Chemistry. 2. Wood—Preservation. 3. Archaeological chemistry. 4. Antiquities—Collection and preservation. I. Rowell, Roger M. II. Barbour, R. James. III. American Chemical Society. Cellulose, Paper, and Textile Division. IV. American Chemical Society. Meeting. (196th: 1988: Los Angeles, Calif.) V. Series. QD1.A355 no. 225 [CC137.W6] 540 s—dc20 [930.1'028]

89-39451 CIP

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. ®

Copyright © 1990 American Chemical Society All Rights Reserved. The appearance of the code at the bottom of the first page of each chapter in this volume indicates the copyright owner's consent that reprographic copies of the chapter may be made for personal or internal use or for the personal or internal use of specific clients. This consent is given on the condition, however, that the copier pay the stated per-copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 27 Congress Street, Salem, M A 01970, for copying beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law. This consent does not extend to copying or transmission by any means—graphic or electronic—for any other purpose, such as for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating a new collective work, for resale, or for information storage and retrieval systems. The copying fee for each chapter is indicated in the code at the bottom of the first page of the chapter. The citation of trade names and/or names of manufacturers in this publication is not to be construed as an endorsement or as approval by ACS of the commercial products or services referenced herein; nor should the mere reference herein to any drawing, specification, chemical process, or other data be regarded as a license or as a conveyance of any right or permission to the holder, reader, or any other person or corporation, to manufacture, reproduce, use, or sell any patented invention or copyrighted work that may in any way be related thereto. Registered names, trademarks, etc., used in this publication, even without specific indication thereof, are not to be considered unprotected by law. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

Advances in Chemistry Series M. Joan Comstock, Series Editor

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1989ACSBooks Advisory Board Paul S. Anderson Merck Sharp &: Dohme Research Laboratories

Mary A. Kaiser E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

Alexis T. Bell University of California—Berkeley

Michael R. Ladisch Purdue University

Harvey W. Blanch University of California—Berkeley Malcolm H. Chisholm Indiana University Alan Elzerman Clemson University John W. Finley Nabisco Brands, Inc. Natalie Foster Lehigh University Marye Anne Fox The University of Texas—Austin G. Wayne Ivie U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

John L. Massingill Dow Chemical Company Daniel M. Quinn University of Iowa James C. Randall Exxon Chemical Company Elsa Reichmanis AT&T Bell Laboratories C. M. Roland U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Stephen A. Szabo Conoco Inc. Wendy A. Warr Imperial Chemical Industries Robert A. Weiss University of Connecticut

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

FOREWORD The ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY SERIES was founded in 1949 by

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the American Chemical Society as an outlet for symposia and collections of data in special areas of topical interest that could not be accommodated in the Society's journals. It provides a medium for symposia that would otherwise be fragmented because their papers would be distributed among several journals or not published at all. Papers are reviewed critically according to ACS editorial standards and receive the careful attention and processing characteristic of ACS publications. Volumes in the ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY SERIES maintain the

integrity of the symposia on which they are based; however, verbatim reproductions of previously published papers are not accepted. Papers may include reports of research as well as reviews, because symposia may embrace both types of presentation.

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

ABOUT T H E EDITORS

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R O G E R M. ROWELL is a carbohydrate chemist

at the Forest Products Laboratory, U . S . D e partment of Agriculture, Forest Service, in Madison, Wisconsin. His research involves the enhancement of wood properties through the chemical modification of wood cell walls. He currently serves as team leader for an International Team on Property Enhancement of Wood Composites Through Chemical M o d ification, as a team leader at F P L on Property Enhancement of Wood Composites, as professor in the Forestry Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and as research professor, Department of Technical Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden. His research has included cooperative studies in the Unites States, Brazil, Denmark, New Zealand, France, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Japan, China, Malaysia, Great Britain, Finland, and Sweden. In 1967 he was an honorary research fellow i n the Chemistry Department at Birmingham University, Birmingham, England. For part of 1985 he was a guest professor, Forest Chemistry Department, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China, and for part of 1985 and 1986 he was a National Science Foundation exchange professor at the Wood Research Institute, Kyoto University, Uji, Japan. For part of 1986 he was a guest professor, Department of Wood Science, University College of North Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom. For part of 1988 he was a guest research fellow at the Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand. In addition to authoring more than 90 publications and receiving five patents, Rowell has presented numerous papers at national and international scientific meetings, organized national and international symposia, and has been active in consulting and technology transfer of his research worldwide. Rowell is a fellow i n the International Academy of Wood Science, a member of the Sigma X i Honorary Research Society and the American Chemical Society, where he served as chairman of the Cellulose, Paper, and Textile Division in 1980. Rowell received his B.S. degree i n math and chemistry in 1961 from Southwestern College i n Kansas. H e received his M . S . and P h . D . in biochemistry from Purdue University in 1963 and 1965, respectively.

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.

Downloaded by 46.161.58.221 on January 21, 2017 | http://pubs.acs.org Publication Date: May 5, 1989 | doi: 10.1021/ba-1990-0225.fw001

R . JAMES 0amie) BARBOUR is a wood scientist with Forintek Canada Corporation's eastern laboratory in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. His research involves the evaluation of wood quality problems encountered by the Canadian wood products industry in the processing of the existing resource, as well as those expected in the utilization of the managed resource that is currently being grown. H e became involved in the conservation of archaeological wood as an undergraduate botany student at Washington State University. He began by making species identifications of wood recovered from the Hoko River Site, which is located on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. H e soon realized that there was a need for further research into the properties of archaeological wood and how these properties influence the outcome of various conservation treatments. This was the topic of his master's thesis, which was written at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington.

Barbour's research in the area of the conservation of archaeological wood has included work on the microstructural properties of waterlogged wood, the shrinkage and collapse of waterlogged and damp wood during drying, various aspects of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sugar treatments to improve dimensional stability, in situ polymerization of water-soluble monomers, and freeze-drying of waterlogged wood. Although his current research is in the area of the industrial utilization of wood, he maintains a healthy interest in the conservation of archaeological wood and hopes to continue to make meaningful contributions to this field.

Rowell and Barbour; Archaeological Wood Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1989.