Research Watch: Baltic Sea sediments - Environmental Science...
Toxicity of aerosol-bound PAHs
Sediments in the Central Gulf of Finland," Chemosphere 1997, 36(3), 503-521)
Aerosol-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because they are believed to be associated with cancer development in humans. Although the most studied PAH, benzo[a]pyrene, accounts for a significant fraction of the total mutagenic activity of urban aerosol extracts, investigators believe that other aerosol-bound PAHs may also play an important role. J. Allen and coworkers determined the distribution of other CZ4H,4 PAHs as a function of particle size distribution of urban aerosols. Results indicate that the total concentration of C24H14 PAHs is comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene. The authors concluded that because of the mutagenicities of these compounds, C24H14 PAHs may make a contribution to the genotoxicity of urban aerosols that is comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Observed distributions were found to have implications for human exposure. (Environ. Sci. Technol., this issue, pp. 1928-1932)
Carbon monoxide sink. Factors affecting the rate of CO utilization by soils were investigated in laboratory incubations and in the field using static chambers. (Moxley, J. M.; Smith, K. A. "Factors Affecting Utilization of Atmospheric CO by Soils," Soil Biol. Biochem. 1998, 30(1), 65-79)
braic/Graphical Tool To Compare Ecosystems With Respect to Their Pollution by Pb/Cd. Ill: Comparative Regional Analysis by Applying a Similarity Index," Chemosphere 1997, 36(3), 441-450) Lead in peat bogs. Historical deposition of lead in peat bogs can be related to natural events and anthropogenic activity. (Weiss, D.; Shotyk, W; Cheburkin, A. K.; Gloor, M.; Reese, S. "Atmospheric Lead Deposition From 12,400 to ca. 2,000 yrs BP in a Peat Bog Profile, Jura Mountains, Switzerland," Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 1997, i 00(3-4), 311-324)
Modeling Dissolved organic matter in the ocean. A biogeochemical general circulation model was developed, which includes dissolved organic matter production and consumption processes. (Yamanaka, Y.; Tajika, E. "Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Marine Biogeochemical Cycle: Studies Using an Ocean Biogeochemical General Circulation Model," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 1997, 11 (4), 599-612) Environmental contaminants. A review is presented of factors that are an incentive for applying mass balance modeling concepts toward elucidating sources, fate, and effects of contaminants in the environment. (Mackay, D.; Di Guardo, A.; Hickie, B.; Webster, E. "Environmental Modeling: Progress and Prospects," SAR QSAR Environ. Res. 1997, 6(1-2), 1-17)
Pesticides Chlorpyrifos hazard. Research has established that the semivolatile pes-
ticide will accumulate at high levels on and in toys and other sorbent home surfaces after application. (Gurunathan, S.; Robson, M.; Freeman, N.; Buckley, B.; Roy, A.; Meyer, R.; Bukowski, J. "Accumulation of Chlorpyrifos on Residential Surfaces and Toys Accessible to Children," Environ. Health Perspect. 1998, i06(l), 9-16) Soil organisms and pesticides. A microcosm experiment was used to evaluate effects of patchy soil contamination by sodium pentachlorophenate on decomposer organisms, their community regulation and nutrient mineralization. (Salminen, J. E.; Sulkava, P. O. "Decomposer Communities in Contaminated Soil: Is Altered Community Regulation a Proper Tool in Ecological Risk Assessment of Toxicants?" Environ. Pollut. 1997, 97(1-2), 45-53)
Risk Manganese-based fuel additive. The potential risks associated with use of the gasoline fuel additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, are summarized. (Davis, J. M.; Jarabek, A. M.; Mage, D. T; Graham, J. A. "The EPA Health Risk Assessment of Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT)," Risk Anal. 1998, i8(l), 57-70)
Sediments Baltic Sea sediments. Metal concentrations and other parameters were studied in suspended sediments that were taken from a basin in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea, in die central Gulf of Finland. (Leivuori, M.; Vallius, H. "A Case Study of Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition of Accumulating Suspended
Toxicity Sediment toxicity. Guidelines based on the bulk chemistry of sediments should not be used as indicators of sediment toxicity. (O'Connor, T. E; Daskalakis, K. D ; Hyland, J. L.; Paul, J. E; Summers, J. K. "Comparisons of Sediment Toxicity With Predictions Based on Chemical Guidelines," Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1998, i7(3), 468-471)
Waste Waste site survey methods. Results show that electromagnetic survey methods provide useful information for investigation of subsurface agricultural waste sites. (Eigenberg, R. A.; Korthals, R. L.; Nienaber, J. A. "Geophysical Electromagnetic Survey Methods Applied to Agricultural Waste Sites," /. Environ. Qual. 1998, 27(1), 215-219)
Wastewater Biological phosphorus removal. A kinetic model for characterizing biological phosphorus removal in sequencing-batch and continuous-flow reactors is described. (Filipe, C.D.M.; Daigger, G. T. "Development of a Revised Metabolic Model for the Growth of Phosphorus-Accumulating Organisms," Water Environ. Res. 1998, 70(1), 67-79) Contributors: Michael Brauer, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Brian Eitzer, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn.; Stephen Geiger, Remediation Technologies, Inc., King of Prussia, Pa.; Vincent Hand, Miami University, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Oxford, Ohio; Louis Kovach, Ecolife Associates, Wilmington, Del; Geoffrey Nobes, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; and Raewyn Town, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland.
JULY 1, 1998 / ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY / NEWS • 3 3 3 A