Standards and Specifications - Advances in Chemistry (ACS


Standards and Specifications - Advances in Chemistry (ACS...

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Standards and Specifications CEDRIC R. F L A G G , Research and Development Board, Washington, D. C.

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ROBERT P. WARE, National Paint, Varnish & Lacquer Association, Washington, D. C .

Standards are issued by individual companies, associations, and government agencies, and are used in connection with purchases as well as manufacture of products. The American Society for Testing Materials is interested in standardizing methods of testing and specifications for materials of engineering. The American Standards Association is a federation of national organizations interested in standards. A selective list of groups and government agencies that issue standards of chemical interest gives information on subject matter covered, type of standards, designations used, and forms of publication. Standards are an excellent source of definitions, of information on materials and test methods, formulas for computations and calculations, and bibliographical material.

The terms "standards" and "specifications" may have slightly different meanings to various individuals or groups, and they are often confused and mistakenly used inter­ changeably. Therefore, any discussion should begin with the definition and clarification of these two terms.

Definitions There are 23 definitions listed for the noun " s t a n d a r d " i n Webster's Unabridged D i c ­ tionary. One of these is " t h a t which is established b y authority, custom, or general con­ sent, as a model or example." I n this sense, standard means anything which is accepted. Thus, we have living standards, social standards, and business standards. Because, under various conditions, different authorities may be recognized, standards may change and two or more conflicting standards dealing with the same subject may exist at the same time. Standards used i n connection with technology, industry, and business cover both material objects and procedures. Standards on material objects include those of measurement and of composition. These standards are usually material objects themselves, such as a weight, a color chip, or a chemical. F o r example, the National Bureau of Standards prepares, certifies, and dis­ tributes nearly 500 different standard samples of chemicals, metals, ores, and ceramics. They are materials which have been carefully analyzed or whose physical properties have been precisely determined. They are used i n controlling chemical processes and i n main­ taining the accuracy of apparatus and equipment. Standards on procedure include those on administration and operation. Those standards are usually written documents outlining an approved method, technique, or process. Another definition of standards is : " I n business, . . . carefully drawn specifications €orenag material or equipment." Therefore, standard may be considered a generic term 449

In LITERATURE RESOURCES; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1954.

ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY SERIES

450

and specifications a form of standards used primarily for buying and selling. I n every­ day usage, a specification is usually a written document describing a material i n terms of composition, dimension, or performance or combinations of these, so that the same mean­ ing is conveyed to a buyer and a seller.

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Standards of Companies and Groups Standards are issued and maintained by a number of diverse organizations, including individual companies, societies, associations, and government agencies. M o s t industrial concerns use some form of standards not only for the purchasing of materials but also for their own processes and products. F o r example, they are engineer­ ing standards which deal with designing a product, specifying the materials used i n making the product, and determining how the product shall operate. A company may have one or more departments, whose sole function is to plan and issue standards. I n some cases, these company standards may be copies or modifications of nationally recognized stand­ ards. However, particularly in the chemical industry, special company standards may be needed. The success of a process may well depend upon the use of very special materials of construction or very specific operating temperatures and pressures. This type of i n ­ formation may be confidential and its distribution limited. For some procedures and materials, it is advantageous if a number of companies col­ lectively develop group standards. F o r example, the American Society for Testing M a ­ terials is interested in the standardization of methods of testing and specifications for m a ­ terials of engineering. The membership of this society may be roughly classified into three groups: (1) producers of raw materials and semifinished and finished products, (2) consumers of materials, and (3) a general interest group comprising engineers, testing ex­ perts, research workers, etc. These members working i n technical committees sponsor and carry out research work. This work, i n the form of papers, reports, and discussions, is published in the annual Proceedings and the AST M Bulletin (issued eight times a year). F r o m this work, the committees develop tentative specifications and methods of test. O n recommendation of the committee, the tentatives are published. On formal adoption b y the society, which includes a letter ballot approval by the entire membership, these tenta­ tives become standards. Tentatives and standards are published i n separate pamphlet form, i n collected form as a book of A S T M standards, and i n special compilations. A n an­ nual numerical and subject index to the tentative and standard specifications and methods of test is also published. In turn, these various groups, societies, and associations may combine for the purpose of issuing standards on a national or international scale. One such combination is the American Standards Association, which is a federation of national organizations interested in standards. They include engineering societies, trade associations, and government de­ partments. There are also a number of company members. The "American standards" approved by the American Standards Association may be of a wide variety of types : d i ­ mensional standards, specifications of materials, performance specifications, definitions of technical terms, methods of test, methods of analysis, industrial safety codes, industrial health codes, of building codes. A n "American standard" may be an existing standard already i n general use, a proposed standard which is generally accepted, or an entirely new standard. Approved standards are published by the American Standards Association or by sponsor organizations. These standards, a list of them, and standards issued by the government and foreign standardizing bodies are available from the American Standards Association. I n addition, the association publishes a monthly magazine—Standardization—and maintains a library of over 25,000 standards with related books and material.

Standards of Government Agencies I n addition to the standards of companies and groups, such as societies and associa­ tions, a large number of standards are issued b y city, county, state, and federal govern­ ment agencies. A great percentage of such standards are procurement specifications. The Department of Defense, Office of Standardization, may be used as an example of In LITERATURE RESOURCES; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1954.

F L A G G AND WARE—STANDARDS

AND SPECIFICATIONS

451

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a government agency that develops such specifications. This agency was established on M a y 11, 1948, as a successor to the Joint A r m y and N a v y Specifications Board. I t is re­ sponsible for the standardization of specifications and of common use items for the three military departments. The agency provides for the avoidance of duplication both i n the military series and between the military and federal series. When adopted, M I L specifi­ cations are mandatory for use by the military departments. The principle of adoption by consensus is followed. Besides specifications, this agency puts out M I L standards. T w o forms are used—the book form and the sheet form. The sheet form i n many respects is a drawing depicting standardized items rather than a word description. A four-volume M i l i t a r y Index to this material is available. Volume I lists all M I L specifications and standard; the other volume lists the specifications and standards used b y the three military departments—Volume I I , A r m y ; Volume I I I , N a v y ; Volume I V , A i r Force. M o n t h l y supplements keep these volumes current and a new issue of the basic volume is to be published semiannually.

Locating Specific Standards It is the written standards of these various organizations on industrial and technical procedures and materials that are of interest to the Division of Chemical Literature. Each of these organizations has set forms for its own standards. I n general, material spe­ cifications contain various combinations of the following: scope, definition or description of the terms used, requirements of the material, methods of sampling and testing, classes of the material, basis of purchase, shape, size, and dimension of the material, workman­ ship, finish, packing, marking, shipping, storing, and inspecting. Test methods may con­ tain the following : scope, definition or description of terms, sampling and size of sample, apparatus (including calibration), reagents to be used, procedure, calculations, records, accuracy, and reproducibility. Literature specialists may use standards i n a number of ways. The most common requests, of course, are for specific standards. If sufficient information—the name of the issuing organization and the title and/or designation of the standard—is given, no great difficulties are encountered. Also, because most organizations furnish adequate indexes to their own standards, few problems arise i n locating a specific organization's standard on a particular subject. However, two types of questions can be extremely troublesome: where a standard on a certain subject is required with no idea of what organization issued it, and where the only information is the standard designation—a jumble of numbers a n d / or letters—and the standard and issuing organization are to be found. These two types of questions are troublesome because, although most organizations have lists and indexes of their own material, there is no over-all list or index to standards. Standards are not, as a general rule, abstracted for abstract journals. There have been a few compilations of standards. One of these is the " N a t i o n a l Directory of Commodity Specifications" issued by the National Bureau of Standards. Another is Circular 751 of the Scientific Section of the National Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer Association. This cir­ cular contains abstracts of all U . S. government specifications on paints, varnishes, lac­ quers, and their raw materials. A s a possible aid i n answering such questions, a list has been prepared of a number of the groups and federal government agencies which issue standards of chemical interest. This list contains information on name and address of issuing organization, subject matter covered by the standards, type of standards, designation used, and forms of publication.

Information Provided by Standards A close study of standards will show that they contain much information useful i n general chemical reference work. Standards are an excellent source for definitions. Because standards should convey the same meaning to different groups, a great deal of care is exercised i n the use and defini­ tion of terms. Examples of standards dealing entirely w i t h definitions include A S T M D 16-47 and D 16-48T covering terms relating to paint, varnish, lacquer, and related prodIn LITERATURE RESOURCES; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1954.

452

A D V A N C E S IN CHEMISTRY SERIES

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ucts and D 123-45 covering terms relating to textile materials. T h e last named contains an appendix which gives not only definitions of various defects in woven fabrics, but also photographs illustrating each defect. Standards naturally contain a great amount of information on materials and test meth­ ods. T h e y m a y offer the easiest method of finding data on composition, physical and chemical properties, manufacture, handling, and uses of chemicals and other materials. F o r example, the "Pharmacopeia of the United States," which is a book of standards, gives the official Latin name, the official English name, synonyms, chemical formula, molecular weight, description, physical properties, tests for identity and purity, assay, storage, prepa­ rations, and dosage for drugs and medicines of therapeutic usefulness or pharmaceutic necessity used in the United States or its possessions. Standards are a recognized source for test methods, including sampling, qualitative and quantitative analyses, reagents, testing apparatus and equipment, calibration, pro­ cedure, calculations, accuracy, and reproducibility. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that standards contain various formulas for computations and calculations, conversion factors, and correction factors. F o r exam­ ple, a method of test for calorific value of gaseous fuels b y the water-flow calorimeter ( A S T M D 900-46T) has tables showing corrections for reduction of observed barometric heights to standard conditions. These corrections include those of temperature, latitude, and altitude. A standard method of testing and tolerances for woolen yarns ( A S T M 40344) has formulas for computing yarn numbers and a yarn number conversion table. Certain standards also contain bibliographical material. T h e " M e t h o d s of A n a l y s i s " of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, for example, gives 40 references in the section dealing with coloring matters and 155 references in the section on drugs. Familiarity with standards will reveal many other ways in which they may be helpful.

Standards of Chemical Interest T h e following list includes groups and federal government agencies which issue stand­ ards of possible chemical interest. T h i s list is selective and is intended to be representa­ tive and not complete. T h e omissions include a large number of organizations which do not issue standards themselves but may sponsor standards in other groups. Designation

Form

Organization and Address

T y p e of S t a n d a r d s

A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S t a t e H i g h w a y Officials, 1220 N a ­ tional Press B l d g . , W a s h i n g ­ ton, D . C .

Specifications and m e t h o d s of test for highway materials

Book

M

A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of T e x ­ tile Chemists a n d Colorists, Lowell Textile Institute, Lowell, Mass.

M e t h o d s of test

P a r t of t e c h n i c a l manual and yearbook, also separates

None

AMERICAN

Descriptions, proper­ ties, a n d m e t h o d s of test of reagent c h e m ­ icals

Book

None

CHEMICAL

SOCI­

1153 1 6 t h S t . , N . W . . W a s h i n g t o n 6, D . C .

ETY,

A m e r i c a n I r o n a n d Steel I n ­ stitute, 350 F i f t h A v e . , N e w Y o r k 1, Ν . Y .

Materials and ods of test

American Leather Chemists' A s s o c i a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio

M e t h o d s of test

Book

American O i l Chemists' Soci­ ety, 35 E a s t W a c k e r D r i v e , C h i c a g o 1, 111.

M e t h o d s of test, i n eluding oil products, s u c h as soap

Book

American Petroleum Institute, 816 R i o G r a n d e N a t i o n a l B l d g . , D a l l a s 2, T e x .

Equipment and meth­ ods of test

Separates

meth-

Manual, rates

sepa-

(loose-leaf)

1, 2, o r 3 d i g i t s d i g i t s Τ 1, 2, o r digits-2 digits

Pamphlets

numbered

Capital letter, pos­ sibly small letter-1 or 2 digits, possibly small letter 2 digits S t d . 1 or 2 digits capi­ tal letter; 2 digits capital letter

In LITERATURE RESOURCES; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1954.

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FLAGG AND WARE—STANDARDS AND

453

SPECIFICATIONS Book

None

M e t h o d s of test (a) W a t e r a n d sew­ age w i t h A m e r i c a n Water Works A s ­ sociation (b) D a i r y p r o d u c t s , chemical part, with Association of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l ­ tural Chemists

Books

(a) N o n e (6) C h a p t e r a n d p a r a ­ graph

A m e r i c a n Society for T e s t i n g M a t e r i a l s , 1916 R a c e S t . , P h i l a d e l p h i a 3, P a .

Specifications and m e t h o d s of test f o r engineering m a t e r i ­ als

Book, special compilations, a n d separates

Capital letter (A, B , C , D , o r E ) - l , 2 , 3, or 4 d i g i t s - 2 digits; p o s s i b l y Τ (for T e n t a ­ tive)

American Standards Associa­ tion, 70 E a s t 45th S t . , N e w Y o r k 17, Ν . Y .

A l l types

Separates

Capital letter 1 t h r o u g h 6 digits (deci­ mals and small let­ ters possible)-if a p ­ p r o v e d , y e a r of a p ­ proval

American Pharmaceutical A s ­ sociation, 2215 C o n s t i t u t i o n Ave., N . W . , Washington, D. C.

Methods (drugs)

American Public Health Asso­ ciation, 1790 Broadway, N e w Y o r k 19, Ν . Y .

of

test

A s s o c i a t i o n of A m e r i c a n R a i l ­ M a n y t y p e s , i n c l u d i n g m e t h o d s of t e s t , m a ­ road Operating-Transporta­ terial specifications, tion, Engineering, Me­ equipment (mainte­ chanical, and Freight C l a i m nance a n d installa­ Divisions, 59 E a s t V a n B u tion) , a n d recom­ r e n S t . , C h i c a g o 5, I I I . ; P u r ­ mended practices chases & Stores D i v i s i o n , and instructions Transportation Bldg., W a s h i n g t o n 6, D . C . B u ­ r e a u of E x p l o s i v e s , 3 0 V e s e y S t . , N e w Y o r k 7, Ν . Y .

Manuals

and

Various, i n c l u d i n g 1 or 2 digits-capital lett e r - 1 , 2, o r 3 d i g i t s ; digits; M - l digit ( O - T D i v . ) 2 or 3 digits-2 digits ( E n g . D i v . ) , M or E M - 3 digits-2 digits (Mech. Div.)

Chapter and paragraph number

A s s o c i a t i o n of Official A g r i c u l ­ tural Chemists, P . O. B o x 540, Benjamin Franklin S t a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n 4, D . C.

M e t h o d s of test, i n eluding drugs, cos­ metics, fertilizer, v i ­ t a m i n s , residues i n food, a n d economic poisons

Book

I n s t i t u t e of R a d i o E n g i n e e r s , 1 E a s t 79th St., N e w Y o r k , Ν. Y .

M e t h o d s of test, e q u i p ­ ment, a n d materials

In Proceedings, reprints and special c o m p i l ­ ations

Manufacturing Chemists' A s ­ sociation of the United States, 264 Woodward B l d g . , W a s h i n g t o n 5, D . C .

Recommended prac­ tices, i n c l u d i n g a i r and water pollution, tables, w a r n i n g l a b ­ els, a n d s a f e t y d a t a

Separates manual

N a t i o n a l B o a r d of F i r e U n d e r ­ writers, 85 J o h n St., N e w Y o r k 7, Ν . Y .

Recommended prac­ tices a n d e q u i p m e n t

Separates

2 or 3 digits

National Electrical Manufac­ t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 155 E a s t 4 4 t h S t . , N e w Y o r k 17, Ν. Y .

Equipment and mate­ rials

Separates

2 digits-2 or 3 digits

National Fire Protection Asso­ ciation, 60 B a t t e r y m a r c h S t . , B o s t o n 10, M a s s .

Recommended practices a n d e q u i p m e n t

N a t i o n a l Safety C o u n c i l , 20 North Wacker Drive, C h i ­ c a g o 6, 111.

Recommended practices, instructions, and equipment

and

B o o k (codes) a n d separates Separates

SD, T, L, T C , C, W, P-number

s - L o r A 1, 2, or 3 digits s m a l l l e t ­ ter possibly Numbers; abbrevia­ tions (Chem., C e m . , Au.)-numbers; D abbreviations num­ bers

In LITERATURE RESOURCES; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1954.

ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY SERIES

454 S o c i e t y of A u t o m o t i v e E n g i ­ neers, 29 W e s t 3 9 t h S t . , N e w Y o r k 18, Ν . Y .

Materials and methods of t e s t

Handbook

T e c h n i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of P u l p and P a p e r I n d u s t r y , 122 East 42nd St., N e w Y o r k 17, Ν . Y .

Materials and methods of t e s t

First published in TAPPI; b o o k (looseleaf)

U n i t e d States P h a r m a c e u t i c a l Convention

D r u g s a n d medicines (including methods of t e s t )

Book

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U n i t e d States Government D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e Production and Market­ ing Administration, W a s h i n g t o n 25, D . C .

Separates, some in handbooks, reprints

None

Separates

C S o r R 1, 2, o r 3 d i g ­ its-2 digits

Separates

M I L capital letter 1 to 5 digits; M I L - S T D 1 to 4 digits; M S 3 to 5 digits; some still w i t h J A N capi­ tal letter 1 to 3 dig­ its; J A N - S T D 1 to 3 digits

Equipment and methods of t e s t

Separates

Schedule number

Materials and methods of t e s t

Separates

Materials (may include m e t h o d s of test)

B o o k also sepa­ C h a p t e r a n d paragraph rates a n d r e ­ prints from J. Assoc. Offic. Agr. Chemists

Materials and methods of t e s t

Separates

Materials (some color testing)

on

D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e Office of I n d u s t r y a n d M a t e r i a l s a n d s i m p l i Commerce, 14th a n d fied p r a c t i c e r e c o m ­ Constitution A v e . , N . mendations W., Washington 25, D. C. D e p a r t m e n t of D e f e n s e D e f e n s e S u p p l y M a n a g e ­ M a t e r i a l s , m e t h o d s of m e n t A g e n c y , Office of test, and recom­ Standardization, Pent­ mended practices agon, W a s h i n g t o n 25, D. C.

D e p a r t m e n t of I n t e r i o r B u r e a u of M i n e s , P u b l i ­ cations-Distribution Section, 4800 Forbes S t . , P i t t s b u r g h 13, P a . B u r e a u of R e c l a m a t i o n , Chief Engineer, Denver Federal Center, D e n ­ ver, C o l o . Federal Security Agency Food andDrug Adminis­ t r a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n 25, D. C.

General Services A d m i n i s ­ tration Federal S u p p l y Service, Standards Division, W a s h i n g t o n 25, D . C .

R E C E I V E D October 14, 1952.

Μ , Ε , Ο , Τ 1, 2, o r 3 d i g i t s p , s, ν s m - 2 digits

, 2, o r 3 c a p i t a l l e t t e r s (A to M M M ) - c a p i ­ tal letter-2 or 3 dig­ its ; interims have 00 before l a s t d i g i t ; F E D - S T D 1 digit; some still GSA-3 digits

Presented before the Division of Chemical Literature, at the 122nd Meeting of

the A M E R I C A N C H E M I C A L S O C I E T Y , Atlantic City, N . J .

In LITERATURE RESOURCES; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1954.